Energetica India Magazine October-November 2021

In the latter half of the 19th century the first electrically driven motor cars were developed and in the early 20th centu - ry these motor cars, even as they were slowly replacing the horse-drawn carriag - es of the time, themselves were driven into oblivion by the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cars. ICE has ever since been dominating the roads in the world and riding on which the global economy rose spectacularly. After nearly a century and a quarter of its unparalleled domi - nance, there is an amazing turn around. The vanquished electric motor vehicle is now reborn as the modern day “EV” and is raising the heat to melt the ICE and eventually evaporate them into thin air. The new avatar and its grand welcome around the globe is happening on the back of two significant developments that almost unfolded simultaneously: the birth and evolution of the mobile phones and the Frankenstein monster that took birth from the slender exhaust vents of the ICEs and the towering chimneys of the power plants that began running amok around the world with ever greater ferocity. The sharp growth in the mobile phones, laptops and mobile power tools threw open huge opportunities and the search for batteries with even better performance lead to the moving the Lithium-ion Batter - ies (LIB) languishing in the small confines of labs to the market place of the world in 1992 by Sony. The many tinkering in the LIB chemistry over the last quarter cen - tury led to the dramatic fall in LIB price and enhanced performance. Present day phones for example weigh between 160 and 200 grams with the battery weighing just a fifth and the talk time ranging be - tween 8 and 20 hours. It was also in the nineties, the ever rising adverse impact of climate change culmi - nated in the “Kyoto Protocol” to combat the calamitous impact of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions. Environmental - ly sensitized states like California and countries like Germany began tightening their tail pipe emission laws. Sensing a huge opportunity in clean transportation two young engineers, Elon Musk was not one of them, founded Tesla in 2003. In less than a year the visionary Elon Musk took over the reigns as a Co-founder and Chairman and made Tesla an iconic com - pany that it is today. His vision to drive EV transition in the world caught the fancy of the world and the clean transportation efforts quickly caught on like Californian fire. Major nations including India began putting in place ambitious EV targets in a move towards clean mobility transition. India set an ambitious 2030 EV tar - get: 70% commercial vehicles, 80% two-wheelers, 40% buses and 30% cars. This was backed by the Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme ‘Nation - al Programme on Advanced Chemistry Cell (ACC) Battery Storage’. That meant a staggering 156mn tons reduction in oil consumption and an opportunity to standby the Paris summit to reduce greenhouse gas emission, by 30-35% below 2005 levels by 2030. In July this year the EU announced its plans to ban the sale of ICE vehicles by 2035 in an ef - fort to reduce net GHG emissions by 55% from 1990 levels. The US and China, the prime drivers of the EV market have their own ambitious electro-mobility plans. With mounting pressures from regulators to meet climate targets global automak - ers themselves are rushing to announce their deadlines to phase out ICE and shift to 100% EV manufacturing. In 2020 the global sales of EVs, all with LIBs, touched 3mn. It is projected that the sales will touch 12mn by 2025 and 31mn by 2030. No wonder the demand for LIBs are booming. The current global capacity of the transportation energy storage domi - nated by Lithium Nickel Manganese Co - balt (NMC) type is estimated at 455 GWh and is expected to reach 1,447 GWh by 2025. Are Batteries Enough to Fulfill the Industry’s EV PROMISES? ELECTRIC VEHICLES Venkat Rajaraman Founder and CEO, Cygni Battery quality and its ability to deliver on all the parameters critically depend on the quality of cathodes, anodes and other critical components. With very little entry barrier, many of the components available in the market can- not be trusted for its quality. Sourcing components from tier-1 suppliers amidst rising demand would pose serious procurement challenges. 52 energetica INDIA- Oct-Nov_2021