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Bharat scale, the ability to finance the development of a smart city, and track record of implementing the previous urban renewal programmes of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission. These way 98 areas were identified for Smart City Mission funding. They include 24 state capitals, 13 cities in Uttar Pradesh–India’s most populous state; and 12 cities in Tamil Nadu, 10 in Maharashtra, six in Gujarat and Karnataka and four in West Bengal and Rajasthan. In November 2015, each of the 98 areas submitted a detailed smart city proposal to the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD). Based upon its assessment of these proposals, the Government, in January 2016, announced the list of 20 smart cities to be taken up in the first phase. The next two years will see the inclusion of 40 and 38 cities, respectively. Starting from the basics The core attribute of smart cities start with adequate water supply, assured electricity supply, sanitation, efficient urban mobility and public transport, affordable housing, robust IT connectivity and digitalization, good governance, sustainable environment, safety and security of citizens, health care and education. The government would also work towards reducing the dependence of cities on fossil fuels. All the smart cities will have solar, LEDs and rainwater harvesting. The use of information communications technology (ICT) would also be compulsory for all the smart cities and that would enable better, integrated governance and communication. Funding Model According to newspaper reports, estimates of the overall cost per city vary from Rs 10,000 crore to Rs 30,000 crore. The centre will provide viability gap funds of Rs 500 crore per city; with Rs 200 crore allocated in the first year, and Rs 100 crore for each of the subsequent three years. State governments will match the centre’s funding by providing Rs 500 crore for each of the smart cities within their jurisdiction. The centre expects the remaining investment in the Smart Cities Mission to be raised by the urban local body (ULB) responsible for each smart city. Every ULB, in conjunction with the government of its state, will create a special purpose vehicle (SPV) to lead the programme that will deliver the smart city. Funding is anticipated to come from a mixture of direct foreign investment–from the private sector and government agencies; and from the domestic private sector. Smart Cities and Energy Efficiency According to the estimates, solar will account for ten per cent of the smart cities’ power. Solar power is much more sustainable option as compared to fossil fuels. The use of smart distribution networks will also contribute to the smart city goal of an assured electricity supply by helping reduce transmission and distribution (T&D) losses. Water is increasingly being viewed as a strategic resource and not just mere lifesupporting resource and if India can deploy suitable technology to treat water, it could significantly expand its water supply and as better water means better public health and economic development. Water needs to be appropriately managed to meet the challenges of ensuring its availability to all people across the globe in reasonable quantities. Smart metering is effective means to ensure adequate water supply. At present, 40-50 percent of the water entering India’s distribution networks is lost. This is largely due to leakage, unauthorised connections. Smart metering is a highly successfully way of identifying accurately how much water is being lost, where leaks are occurring, and the location of unauthorised connections to the distribution network. This information helps preserve a stressed natural resource and increase the income available to invest in water infrastructure Solar power is much more sustainable option as compared to fossil fuels. The use of smart distribution networks will also contribute to the smart city goal of an assured electricity supply by helping reduce transmission and distribution (T&D) losses The core attribute of smart cities start with adequate water supply, assured electricity supply, sanitation, efficient urban mobility and public transport, affordable housing, robust IT connectivity and digitalization, good governance, sustainable environment, safety and security of citizens, health care and education SMART CITIES 56 energetica INDIA · MAR | APR16


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