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RENEWABLE ENERGY with the government and national and international authorities (planning and execution of PPP based business models) is needed for the development of effective waste management through skilled manpower. However, the numbers of new direct jobs in the sector will create various challenges of reskilling and up-skilling the existing workforce. Nevertheless, the sustainable solution to overcome the challenges is to involve universities and national and international certification associations to impart education on specific skills and courses to cater the needs of waste management industry which is going through an unprecedented transformation. The resource-led metamorphosis of the waste sector is a permanent structural shift, so skill needs are not transitory, but rather for the long-term. Invariably, India offers excellent opportunities for international or foreign companies specializing in various waste management processes. Even the companies selling products and technology will find India as a big and lucrative marketplace. Waste management industry has been deemed as less demanding when it comes to skills requirements compare to other occupations. But, with the paradigm shift from waste disposal to sustainable resource management, there is a need to combine existing market and infrastructure knowledge with new commercial skills and different prototypes of processing. There is also an extraordinary opportunity to take advantage of the effective rebranding of waste management industry from the negative associations of ‘waste’ to the more positive associations of ‘resource management’, building sector attractiveness and attracting more skilled workers to meet its new resource requirements  MR. RAVI SEETHAPATHY P ENG, MBA, FCAE, UTILITY ADVISOR / ADJUNCT PROFESSOR/ CORPORATE DIRECTOR, EXECUTIVE CHAIRMAN; BIOSIRUS INC. / ADJUNCT PROFESSOR, UNIV. OF TORONTO / BOG; INDIA SMART GRID FORUM Country Strategy for Managing Coal Fired Power Fleet In many developing countries, their only available domestic fuel source is coal. In addition, their economic growth imperative forces them to increase power generation using even more such coal. Countries like India, China, Indonesia, many Far-east and African countries are just a few of these examples (and there are many more). While low hanging fruits such as (1) energy conservation, and (2) decreasing energy intensity are the first critical steps to adopt, one also cannot lose sight of the fact coal generation in these countries will continue to play a dominant role and cannot be simply be “wished away”. At a recent small gathering of finance and power experts, I was asked what would be a prudent strategy for such countries (i.e. do their best all around). I give below the gist of my response: Rebuild all coal-fired plants that are more than 15-20 years old (weighted heat rate of less than 2700 kCal/Kwh) with new ones in the same (or adjacent) locations possibly using the same switchyard and existing auxiliary plant systems. The newer plants will improve weighted heat rate potentially to as much as 3500 kCal/Kwh. This will increase MW capacity for the same land foot print and allow for high efficiency unit auxiliary power consumption. The combined effect of all three should see a good boost to improved performance. This will also allow for the same amount of coal to produce more electricity (or divert excess coal to other locations). Most old coal plants (by virtue of their outdated technology) are sitting at negative NPV (akin to fuel inefficient cars, ships and airplanes) consuming as much as 75% of their running cost in just fuel consumption. Yet (particularly) state utilities continue to run such fleet, losing money and adding to their debt burden. Do not adopt washed-coal technologies (albeit given its benefits) as it requires more water (as much as 30% more) creating valuable water scarcity in such lands. Not a good public policy. The energy-water nexus is genuine and must be optimized. Unlike developed countries that cycle their fossil plants, try to avoid this and increase plant load factors (PLF) to higher levels and manage demand through other means like DR, renewables, critical peak pricing, reducing air-conditioning loads, or even restrictive load shedding. Higher PLF improves plant efficiency. The gains are worth this effort. In many designs, a 10% increase in PLFs can enable efficiency gains of 4%. Increase renewable generation mix in the MV or LV networks closer to load centers (roof top solar, energy storage, etc.). This aids the above benefits, particularly if energy efficiency and DR have been adopted. Avoid using CSP or other solar heat to provide heat to increase the plant weighted heat rate. While there are ongoing trials, it simply does not cut it for large unit sizes. It may be more suitable to add a gas-turbine facility and use its flue gas or even a gas-fired auxiliary boiler. Retrofitting pollution abatement systems will provide only marginal relief (may be up 10%). It is a decreasing ROI and unlikely to meet new pollution laws (especially particulate emission). Replacement units offer a better bang for the buck. Continuous plant monitoring and fine-control is the ONLY way plants can be run efficiently. This would require some investments in this area. In summary, countries like India, China and others should consider adopting such strategies which will show progress while allowing them to use their domestic resource and capital efficiently and effectively. Specifically for India, it would likely mean replacing about 30,000 MW of such older generation assets. The private sector with private capital must be employed to affect these reconstructions. Many of these new plants can be run on a BOO, BOT, “leased operations” or third-party O&M services. It will certainly improve the balance sheets of many bankrupt state utilities and allow for a gradual transfer of such assets into the private sector Do what other profitable fleet operators do…….renew their inefficient assets  46 energetica INDIA · MAR16


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