Page 57

energetica-india-55

Poland. In addition, some minor potential is associated with recreational spas. It is envisaged that geothermal electricity will not develop by 2030. These assumptions follow trends in Europe where geothermal power has rarely been deployed in countries with geo- thermal potential similar to Poland. Low-temperature geothermal sources available in Poland cannot be efficiently used to generate power, so without significant financial incentives geothermal power is unlikely to develop until 2030. Heat pumps The potential for heat pumps is significant for heating in buildings. REmap 2030 estimates about 20 PJ renewable heat generation from heat pumps in this sector. This is equivalent to around half a million heat pumps supplying heating to 1.9 million people in Poland. In 2013, 15 000 heat pumps of various types were in use in Poland. This number could grow by 22.5% each year until 2030 Biomass Polish urban and rural households use biomass for space and water heating as well as cooking. A survey examining consumption in 2009 found 5.7 million households used woodfuel. This is often interchangeable with coal and is typically used in warmer months because of its lower energy content. In particular, ageing solid fuel cooking stoves dating back an average of 24 years are used by about 11%.of all households (1.5 million). This offers major potential for replacement by modern and efficient cooking appliances, including biomass. Industry also uses industrial and domestic waste as well as biomass for process heat generation This represents about 10% of the sector’s TFEC. Biogas production has started only recently. There are about 200 biogas plants and they are unevenly distributed across the country. There are some large biomass-fired electricity power plants and their total biomass consumption as fuel in 2012. Some of these plants fully operate based on biomass while others use a mix of biomass and other fuels. These plants will account for a significant portion of Poland’s biomass demand for power generation to 2020, as well as some of its heat demand. However, new bioenergy projects such as the Tychy combined heat and power (CHP) plant will be also deployed. There are also several other small demonstration units that involve biomass gasification and syngas combustion. Several heat only plants that run fully on biomass also exists, but their sizes are small and dispersed across smaller cities of Poland. RENEWABLE ENERGY Forest residues, agricultural residues and other organic wastes are typically used as feedstocks. Forest residues are typically used alongside small contributions from agricultural residues Some biomass plants use imported biomass transported over long distances sometimes exceeding 100 km per trip. Biomass supply is already a considerable logistical and organisational concern affecting Poland today. Its costeffectiveness will therefore continue to be a major challenge. Biomass is expected to serve a variety of applications ranging from the power and district heating sectors to end-use sectors like buildings, industry and transport.. Solid biomass will need to be used increasingly locally to avoid long distance transportation. However, more centralised facilities will also be deployed, especially in cities with stable demand. These facilities use biomass power blocks in power plants and biomass CHP plants. REmap 2030 indicates up to 3.8GW and 5.2 GW total power generation capacity for 2020 and 2030, respectively. Annual total power generation in 2030 is estimated at 16.5 TWh from solid biomass and 12 TWh from biogas. REmap assumes an expansion of CHP systems using solid biomass and biogas This will benefit the power industry and sectors supplying heat (district heating and industry) Different studies suggest a range of numbers for CHP potential based on biomass and its use for power generation. According to a study by the Institute for Sustainable Development in 2009, about 22 TWh of electricity from solid biomass and 24 TWh from biogas can be produced by 2030. REmap 2030 assumes that the share of biomass in heating will remain high since the expansion of solar water heaters and heat pump solutions will be limited. In addition, biomass could be used in individual heat- alone systems in buildings and industry plants. Industry sector could be responsible for 750 MW, which equates to 400- 1500 units of 0.5-2 MW heating capacity. The average size of biogas heating plants in 2012 was 0.65 MW. This would require about 1 billion m3 biogas. REmap 2030 With all REmap Options implemented, total renewable energy use in Poland’s TFEC 57 energetica INDIA · ENE | FEB16


energetica-india-55
To see the actual publication please follow the link above