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month while in 2012, 181 units were installed in monthly average. In total, 26 MW were installed during 2013, 87% of them in the range 50-100kW, 4% in the range 15-50kW and 9% in the range 0-15kW. Globally, the average size of small wind turbines continues to grow: In 2010, the average installed size was 0, 66 kW, in 2011 0, 77 kW, in 2012 0, 84 kW, and in 2013 it has already reached 0,85 kW. Country wise, the average size is quite diverse: While the average Chinese turbine has a capacity of 0,5 kW, small wind turbines in the US have an average capacity of 1,4 kW and in the UK the capacity has reached 4,7 kW (after 3,7 kW in 2012). Small Wind Turbine Manufacturing Five countries (Canada, China, Germany the UK and the USA) account for over 50% of the small wind manufacturers. By the end of 2011, over 330 small wind manufacturers have been identified in the world offering complete, one-piece commercialised generation systems, and an estimate of over 300 additional firms supplying parts, technology, consulting and sales services. Based on the world distribution of turbine manufacturers, the production of small wind remains concentrated in few world regions: in China, in North America and in several European countries. Developing countries continue to play a minor role in small wind manufacturing. More than 120 new small wind manufacturers were established between 2000 and 2010 worldwide. China alone has an exceptional manufacturing capacity of more than 180’000 units per annum (as of 2011). Technology and Major Applications The early horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) technology has dominated the market for over 30 years. Based on the study of 327 small wind manufacturers as of the end of 2011, 74% of the commercialised one-piece small wind manufacturers invested in the horizontal axis orientation, while only 18% have adopted the vertical design (VAWT). 6% of the manufactures have attempted to develop both technologies. The majority of the vertical axis models have been developed in the past five to seven years, and their market share remains relatively small. The average rated capacity of VAWT is estimated to be 7, 4 kW with a median rated capacity of merely 2,5 kW. In comparison with the traditional horizontal axis orientation, the average and median rated capacity are much smaller. Out of the 157 models of vertical turbines catalogued in this report, 88% are below 10 kW and 75% are below 5 kW. This corresponds well with the actual market demand, as the average unit sold in 2011 had a capacity of 1, 6 kW. Despite a market trend that leans towards a grid-tied system with larger capacity, off-grid applications continue to play an important role in remote areas of developing countries. Off-grid applications include rural residential electrification, telecommunication stations, off-shore generation, and hybrid systems with batteries and other sources like solar. Over 80 % of the manufacturers produce stand aloneapplications. In China, off-grid units comprised 97% of the market in 2009, and 2,4 million households still lack electricity. In USA, off-grid small wind turbines account for most of the units deployed in distributed wind applications. For these reasons off-grid systems will continue to play a significant role, in China and in many other countries with non-electrified areas. In the future, significant growth of offgrid applications is expected in particular in India and in African countries. Driving Factors Costs In the USA, the installed cost estimates of top ten small wind turbine models in 2011 ranged between $2’300/kW and After several years of continuous growth, 2013 was a challenging year for the small wind industry. The three biggest markets suffered a decrease in the number of units installed in a year WIND ENERGY 62 energetica INDIA · NOV | DEC15


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