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Energética India | September / October 2015

quirements to 7% and the expected improvement in rainfall pattern. Brazil’s wind industry is growing rapidly. Power capacity has expanded from under 1 GW in 2010 to nearly 6 GW in 2014 and could reach 16.5 GW in 2019. The number of wind power equipment manufacturers operating in Brazil has risen from just one in 2007 to ten. In a sign of the growing maturity of the supply chain, not only is the number of plants producing blades and towers increasing, but the number of service providers as well. As a result, Brazil’s wind employment stood at 35,800 for 2014. About 21,800 of those jobs are in construction and operation and maintenance, with the rest in manufacturing. Brazil’s solar heating market has expanded strongly in the past decade. The social housing program “Minha Casa, Minha Vida (My House, My Life)”, initiated in 2009, has become a key market driver. In 2013, it was estimated to account for 17% of the newly installed collector area. Total employment in 2013 is estimated at about 41,000 jobs, including 30,000 in manufacturing and the rest in installation. INDIA Up-to-date information for India is limited, making the extent and recent trends of renewable energy employment hard to determine. Solar PV employs 125,000 people in grid-connected and off-grid applications. The latter supports 72,000 jobs, according to an estimate by MNRE and CII. For grid connected applications, IRENA and CEEW estimate that direct employment increased by 28% to reach 53,000 in 2014, with 29,000 jobs in installation and operation and maintenance and the remainder in manufacturing. India’s solar PV manufacturers have struggled to compete with suppliers from China, the United States, Japan and Germany. In 2014, only 28% of India’s module production capacity and 20% of its cell manufacturing capacity were being utilised. Recently, the Indian government has announced ambitious plans to expand installed solar and wind power capacity. These along with the government’s “Make in India” initiative should encourage local and foreign manufacturers to establish a strong domestic industry. For instance, Sun Edison announced in early 2015 that it would build a 7.5 GW production plant, creating about 20,000 construction jobs over three years. If the government reaches its goal of installing 100 GW of solar PV by 2022, CEEW and NRDC (2015) project that India could create 1.08 million jobs. Under the mix of projects proposed by MNRE, threequarters would be short-term jobs (construction, etc.). Prioritising rooftop projects over mega-scale solar parks would raise the country’s total solar PV employment potential to 1.31 million. India is the world’s fifth-largest solar heating and cooling market, where employment has increased from 41,000 jobs in 2009 to 75,000 in 201120, according to available estimates. However, India’s SWH manufacturing industry presently faces strong competition from Chinese imports. Withdrawal of subsidies by the Indian government in 2014 and an extension of Chinese export incentives have rendered local models more expensive, forcing local manufacturers to become distributors of Chinese products to stay profitable. Employment in the wind power sector is estimated at 38,000 to 40,000 jobs. The CEEW and NRDC study (2015) projects that if the government’s goal of installing 60 GW is reached, India could create up to 183,500 wind power jobs (excluding manufacturing) by 2022. Most of these (81%) would be in temporary occupations like construction. About 16% of the jobs would be skilled, 59% semi-skilled and the remaining unskilled. OTHER COUNTRIES Along with China, other Asian countries are also prominent producers of solar panels. Of these, only Japan has so far developed a major domestic solar PV market. Based on the strength of local installations under the feed-in tariff programme, direct and indirect employment increased from 60,000 in 2012 to 210,000 jobs in 2013. IEA-PVPS indicated that more than threequarters of all solar jobs in 2012 were in distribution, installations and services, compared with 17% in manufacturing. With a conducive investment environment, Malaysia has succeeded in attracting a range of solar PV equipment producers from Asia, Europe and the United States, including First Solar, Panasonic, SunEdison, SunPower, Hanwha Q Cells and JinkoSolar. The country has become the world’s thirdlargest solar PV producer, well behind China but ahead of Japan. The most recent employment estimate shows 18,000 solar jobs in 2014, up from 10,700 in 2013. The Republic of Korea was the fifth largest PV panel producer in 2014, with PV jobs estimated at about 13,500 in 2012. Manufacturing accounted for an estimated 56% of these jobs. Worldwide employment related to renewable energy continues to grow significantly, reaching 7.7 million in 2014, up 18% from the number reported in the Renewable Energy and Jobs – Annual Review 2014. As last year, China, Brazil, the United States, India and Germany are the key employers. However, emerging renewable energy markets such as Japan, Bangladesh and Indonesia are gaining prominence. Manufacturing jobs, especially those for wind turbines and solar panels, are increasingly concentrated in a few Asian markets. Other segments of the renewable energy value chain (namely operation and maintenance and construction and installation) offer the bulk of employment opportunities for most countries. In the coming years, renewable energy employment growth will depend on the return to a strong investment trajectory, as well as on continued technological development and cost reductions. Stable and predictable policies will be essential to support job creation. Finally, in a year when negotiators in Paris aim to carve out a global climate agreement, the broader policy framework for energy investments will also move to the forefront India’s solar PV manufacturers have struggled to compete with suppliers from China, the United States, Japan and Germany RENEWABLE ENERGY 62 energetica INDIA · SEP | OCT15


Energética India | September / October 2015
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