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Energética India | September / October 2015

velopment and transportation accounted for 26,700 jobs, while equipment manufacturing supported 19,200. Operation and maintenance and other activities accounted for the remainder. Still, difficulties persist. The number of component manufacturing facilities dropped from 550 to 500 in 2013- 2014, several companies closed plants, announced lay-offs, or left the United States wind market entirely. The consolidation of the industry left GE, Vestas and Siemens as the three dominant companies, with about 90% of the United States market. Ethanol production increased an estimated 7.4% to 54 billion litres. This was driven by sharply lower feedstock prices and a record 2014 corn yield, 36% of which was used to produce ethanol. In line with this development, the United States ethanol employment is estimated to have expanded by 34% to 232,600 in 2014, including jobs created in the construction of 380 million litres of new ethanol processing capacity. Biodiesel production declined by 6.6% to 4.8 billion litres in 2014. The use of an employment factor developed by the National Biodiesel Board yields an estimate of around 49,500 jobs. BRAZIL Brazil’s renewable energy employment remains dominated by liquid biofuels, RENEWABLE ENERGY given the large labour needs to cultivate feedstock for ethanol and biodiesel. Even though production increased, rising mechanisation trimmed the agricultural workforce in the sugarcane-ethanol sector by about 25,000 to 304,350 in 2013. Although formalisation of employment has made forward strides, there are still significant numbers of informal and parttime harvest workers not included in the government RAIS database. Employment in ethanol manufacturing declined slightly to 199,590 jobs, reflecting a consolidation of refineries from 430 in 2010 to 390 in 2014. Brazil’s biodiesel production, mainly soy-based, has more than doubled since 2009. IRENA’s calculation, based on employment factors estimates 141,200 jobs in 2014. The biodiesel feedstock supply employs more than 83,700 small farmers and their number is expected to reach 105,000 in 2015 with the increase in blending re- The United States Department of Energy’s “SunShot Initiative”, launched in 2011, supports innovation in manufacturing, helping attract new facilities 61 energetica INDIA · SEP | OCT15


Energética India | September / October 2015
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