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Energética India | September / October 2015

heat and power contribute smaller shares to overall employment. Germany suffered minor job losses in 2013, following a decade of strong employment expansion. Yet it remains a major manufacturer and installer of renewable energy technologies. German solar PV manufacturers are struggling to stay competitive, with many shifting operations to the Far East. For 2014, the solar industry association offers a preliminary estimate of 45,000- 50,000 jobs, compared to 56,000 in 2013 and a peak of almost 111,000 in 2011. Jobs in installation are also suffering as the domestic market has weakened. German solar heating and cooling employment likely decreased in 2014. New installations of collectors, on the decline since 2008, fell from 1.02 million square meters in 2013 to 0.9 million square meters in 2014. The wind industry employment is likely to have increased as capacity expanded by 5.3 GW in 2014 – the second-highest addition after China. Offshore installations accounted for about 32% of the total capacity additions. The level of offshore wind employment (about 19,000 jobs) was roughly sustained in 2014. Renewable energy employment in France fell by 4%, from 184,000 in 2012 to 176,200 in 2013, the most recent year for which EurObserv’ER offers data. This is entirely due to a loss of 14,100 jobs in the solar industry (primarily the solar PV sector, where new installations declined by 45%), mirroring difficulties experienced across Europe. Employment in all other renewable energy technologies remained essentially unchanged. Biomass heat and power is by far France’s largest employer with 52,500 jobs, followed by ground source heat pumps and biofuels. In these industries, France is ahead of Germany and leads the continent. Solar PV and wind together employ fewer people than the biomass sector in France. All other technologies account for just 8% of the total. UNITED STATES In the United States, the latest National Solar Job Census 14 indicates that total solar employment surged from 142,700 to 173,800 jobs in 2014, an increase of 22%. As in the last several years, installations (adding 1.4 GW during 2014) were the main engine of job growth, accounting for 97,000 jobs. Manufacturing gained as well, adding about 2,600 jobs and continuing an upward trend after the difficulties experienced in 2012. The United States Department of Energy’s “SunShot Initiative”, launched in 2011, supports innovation in manufacturing, helping attract new facilities. The 2013 edition of the Solar Census was the first to include gender information. The 2014 edition provides an update, reporting a rise in solar jobs held by women from 26,700 to 37,500. Relative to the total solar workforce, this represented an increase from 18.7% to 21.6%. Employment in the United States wind industry recovered from the sharp downturn suffered in 2013 due to uncertainties surrounding the Production Tax Credit. Wind energy employment in 2014 was estimated at 73,000, up from 50,500 the previous year. Construction, project de- RENEWABLE ENERGY 60 energetica INDIA · SEP | OCT15


Energética India | September / October 2015
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