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Energética India | September / October 2015

INTERNATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY AGENCY; SUMMARIZED BY ENERGETICA INDIA Renewable Energy and Jobs review 2015 IRENA estimates that renewable energy employed 7.7 million people, directly or indirectly, around the world in 2014 (excluding large hydropower). This is an 18% increase from the number reported in 2013. The world’s leading countries for renewable energy employment remain the same as in previous years: China, Brazil, the United States, India, and some members of the European Union, notably Germany. In addition, new markets have emerged including Indonesia, Japan and Bangladesh CHINA China has firmed up its position as the leading renewable energy job market with 3.4 million employed. Sustained domestic deployment and rising global sol ar PV demand ensured that jobs in the solar PV sector grew by 4%, to 1.6 million. The country produced around 34 GW of solar PV modules in 2014 (70% of world’s production). The manufacturing segment employs close to 80% of China’s solar PV workforce, followed by installation and operation and maintenance (CNREC, 2015). It is also home to the world’s largest SWH industry, catering to domestic demand as well as exports of SWH equipment. Demand for domestic SWH installations fell considerably in 2014. As a result, despite the 2% increase in exports, manufacturing employment declined 20% to 600,000 jobs10. As many as 2.2 million people may be employed in sales, installation and after-sales service of SWHs. However, these jobs are likely to be parttime and often associated with businesses also involved in solar PV. To avoid potential double-counting, they are not included in the aggregate numbers. Bolstered by a strong domestic market, with 20 GW installed in 2014 and 77 GW under construction (Reuters, 2015), Chinese wind employment is growing. The Chinese Wind Energy Association estimates 2014 employment at 502,400 jobs, up from a 2013 figure of 356,000 put forward by the Energy Research Institute of NDRC. More than 70% of the jobs are in manufacturing. Bioenergy in China employed 521,000 people in 2014, with biomass and biogas supporting the majority of those jobs (241,000 and 209,000, respectively). Employment in biofuels is likely to increase as incentives such as blending mandates are enforced. China remains a clear leader in hydropower. The country added around 30 GW of large hydropower in 2013 and planned another 75 GW of new projects in the 2014-2017 period. Construction and installation accounted for more than 70% of the country’s large hydropower employment in 2013. With close to half of global installed capacity, small hydropower accounts for more than 126,000 jobs in China. EUROPEAN UNION Renewable energy employment declined in 2013 in the European Union, reflecting a sharp decrease in overall investment as well as adverse policy conditions. The 2013 total of 1.2 million jobs in the 28 member states of the European Union was down from 1.25 million the year before11. Germany remains the European country with the highest renewables employment by far (371,400 jobs in 2013). This is more than double the number in France (176,200), which itself remains far ahead of the United Kingdom, Italy and Spain12. These five countries account for about 70% of the total European Union renewable energy employment. In the United Kingdom, ambitious offshore wind plans will likely translate into further job expansion in the next few years. The solar PV industry suffered job losses (down 87,000), due to lower manufacturing competitiveness and a weaker installation market in many countries in the European Union. Only a handful of them – the United Kingdom, Greece, Romania and the Netherlands – gained solar PV jobs in 2013. Other renewable energy technologies experienced weak growth and were unable to compensate for the loss in solar PV jobs. Solid biomass added 37,900 jobs in 2013, wind, another 12,600, and geothermal 7,300 jobs. Interestingly, the biomass sector, at 342,100 jobs, now tops wind energy’s 319,600 jobs. Both are far ahead of solar PV (165,000), geothermal heat and power (104,600) and biofuels (97,200). Biogas, small hydropower and solar thermal RENEWABLE ENERGY 58 energética INDIA · SEP | OCT15


Energética India | September / October 2015
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